Fabric Recycling 2009
Title: Design for Disassembly for Apparel: Investigation of joining techniques of technical and biological fabrics
Author: Dana Harder, Eastern Michigan University, Michigan, USA
Background: In order to design more sustainable apparel, ways to separate components of different nutrient cycles, both technological (man-made/recyclable) and biological (natural/compostable), have to be achieved (McDonough 2002). This study focuses on methods to attach polyester lining to a wool outer shell of a jacket. To date, very little research has been done in the area of design for disassembly for apparel. As of 2007, student groups from two universities, Oklahoma State and Illinois State were developing the “first apparel product(s) embracing the idea of design for disassembly” (Cao 2008). My research builds upon this research by evaluating additional joining techniques.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the disassembly time, seam strength and impact on comfort and aesthetics of construction methods for design for disassembly of a wool jacket shell to a polyester lining.
Seam Assemblies tested:
· Traditional construction method stitch type 301 12 stitch per inch +/- 1/2 inch
· Construction replication of Oklahoma State's “untraditional use of buttons”
· Construction replication of Illinois State's stitch type 301 1/4" in length
· Polyester hook and natural fiber loop
· Washable glue
· Lace up assembly
· Tie assembly
Research Design: Two quantitative experiments and survey.
The first experiment tests the fabric strength of the polyester and wool fabrics used and the seam efficiency of each seam assembly; following the ASTM 1683-07 Standard test method for failure in sewn seams in woven apparel. “Seam efficiency in sewn fabrics is the ratio expressed as a percentage, of the breaking force required to rupture a seam to that required to rupture the fabric” (ASTM D 1683-07).
The second experiment tests the disassembly times of the construction methods. A stop watch is used to test seven joining technique samples for disassembly time to separate all polyester from cotton components including any thread from dissimilar nutrient cycles. The sample disassembly time is then used to estimate the disassembly time of the jacket by measuring the total attachment area. A ratio (t/10” = x/total length of seam) will be used to calculate the time needed to disassemble the lining from the shell. This method is based off of correspondence with Dr. Hae Jin Gam about her testing method for the Illinois State jacket. This will establish 1) whether the design alternatives require less time than the traditional method to disassemble, 2) the construction method with the quickest disassembly time, and 3) determine if any of the methods could be disassembled in 30 seconds or less.
Finally, seven size 12 women’s jackets (Butterick pattern B6410) of the various construction methods will be constructed for the evaluation. A survey will evaluate the effect on aesthetics and comfort of the various construction methods for connecting the lining and shell in comparison to the traditional jacket and whether any of the alternatives would be considered un-wearable. The survey consists of closed questions to produce nominal (yes, no or not applicable) responses. Descriptive statistics will be calculated for each response. The percentage of positive or negative respondents will be reported.
Conclusions: This research is part of a thesis project currently under way and scheduled to be completed mid-april.
ASTM D 1683-07
Cao, Huantian and Gam, Hae Jin. Embracing Design for Disassembly providing a Proof-of-Concept for
the Apparel Industry’s Role in leading Product Design and Production into a New Eco-Concious Era. (unpublished abstract) Oklahoma State University. ITAA Conference 2008. Supported by EPA Grant SU833517.
McDonough, William and Braungart, Micheal. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the way we make things.
(2002) New York: Nothpoint Press